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Implications of Indensation for Agriculture (144 KB)
The general functioning of the soil-plant system is considered by way of the relationships between plants and soil microbes. Water and nutrients are addressed, focusing on the supply of water and production of new nutrients essential for the system to develop and survive. The discussion addresses implications for human population levels, and constraints to research and implementation that currently limit the development of sustainable agricultural systems.

HDD Equation Rationale (56 KB)
The 1 page of points could usefully have been included in the paper on phasic development in grape vines.

A Pictorial Synopsis of Agricultural impacts on Australian Vegetation (4.2 MB)
Paintings and photos illustrate changes to vegetation associated with agricultural development in Australia. The natural vegetation is illustrated using early paintings and recent photos of little impacted vegetation. The nature and severity of agricultural impacts are illustrated using historic and recent photos. The degradation of vegetation arising from agricultural land use is discussed in relation to desertification and hence global warming.

Prediction of Phasic Development in Grapevines (172 KB)
A new method of calculating heat degree days for use in addressing the phasic development of perennial deciduous plants is developed from published data. The method allows estimation of the starting date for the commencement of plant physiological development as well as the prediction of the phasic development periods. The results are compared to those obtained using traditional methods.


Examination of the process of dryland salinity (1.55 MB)
A pdf file of handouts from a power point presentation that examines the process for dryland salinity. Variants of the rising groundwater model are examined as well as soil degradation. The processes for water movement under different assumptions and constraints are illustrated using schematic diagrams. The considerations are related to examples of realised salinity outcomes.

Global Implications of Soil Organic Matter (150 KB)
The suggestion that sequestering carbon in soil organic matter creates a financial cost through the need to replace co-sequestered nutrients is examined. The natural supply of nutrients to vegetation is elucidated and the impacts of land use practices such as fertiliser application are outlined. The global warming implications of these impacts on soil organic matter and the development of vegetation are discussed.

Kick 10% of Farmers off their Land: ! or ? (112 KB)
The paper examines the social reasons for the occurrence of land degradation under agriculture, and the basic system constraints that produce it. The basic changes needed to improve agriculture and the environment are identified.


Errors in Estimates of Rates of Clearing with Numerical Analysis of Satellite Imagery (1.8 MB)
The basic characteristics of aerial photography and satellite imagery important for addressing native vegetation are identified. Results from an assessment of land clearing across NSW are used to identify the source and likely magnitude of errors associated with the use of satellite imagery. Results from this study are compared with those produced by the Australian Greenhouse Office for use in carbon accounting. The differences in results are related to the analytical methods.


Perceptions of the Fenner Conference on: Integrating Agricultural and Environmental Imperatives for a Profitable and Sustainable Future (148 KB)
The considerations are based around the dichotomy between well defined objectives for production and ill-defined objectives for natural resources. Natural resource objectives are directed towards conceptual objective such as biodiversity because of the lack of a tangible objective other than having more trees. Integration of conservation and production involved partitioning the landscape between agriculture and native vegetation. This reflects the industry focus with agriculture and a monopoly on natural resource activities by public organisations. The conclusion discusses the likelihood of achieving the conference objectives given the existing organisational constraints.

Social and Scientific Aspects of Land Clearing Controls (426 KB)
A brief history is given on the development of land for agriculture in Australia and the role of science in addressing the associated clearing of native vegetation. This identifies a change from vegetation clearing being determined by production to it becoming a political agenda. The associated changes in government administration and scientific research are illustrated using examples of implementations of NSW environmental legislation. Scientific research has been degraded with deficient science being used to justify restrictive controls on landholders. These controls have imposed costs on landholders and the community without reliable evidence that the suggested environmental benefits will be achieved. The discussion addresses the need to conduct sound basic research on native vegetation and to address environmental objectives by supporting land users rather than by imposing restrictive controls.

Examination of Vegetation Clearing Controls in NSW (290 KB)
This paper is a submission provided by ERIC to the NSW Natural Resources Commission to address the Landscape or Multi-farm Vegetation Plan Review. The paper examines the objectives and requirements specified in the Native Vegetation Act and Regulation to provide context for the consideration of the implementation. The implementation procedures specified in the Environmental Outcomes Assessment Methodology and PVP Developer software are then examined in relation to the specified objectives and what can be achieved. The general conclusions are that the process is completely authoritarian and is scientifically deficient.