Rebuttal to the Return of the RGM for Dryland Salinity (378 KB)
Examines the applicability of recent publications that extend the rising groundwater model (RGM) previously applied to dryland salinity from surficial aquifers to include deep aquifers used for water production. Separate correlations between rainfall and bore water levels and the extent of dryland salinity were used to draw the conclusion that dryland salinity is mainly due to change in climate rather than land use. The validity of this conclusion is examined to demonstrate that it cannot apply.
Common Assumptions on the Process of Dryland Salinity (413 KB)
A number of points were raised during interviews for the Channel 9 Sunday Program, Salt Solutions, that require consideration as contrary evidence for some points has been available since the 1950s and more recent observations negate others. The assumptions addressed include:
- Whatever has not been proven
- Alternatives to the establishment viewpoint have not been suppressed
- No proof exists that the salt derives from the soil
- Addressing dryland salinity through soil structure only addresses symptoms
- Stream salinity provides a valid measure of performance with dryland salinity
- Trees use more water than grasses
- The adverse impacts arise from the imposition of European agriculture
- Actions on dryland salinity have been developed using the best possible science
- The rising groundwater model has been proven and is generally applicable
Examples of the Inapplicability of the Rising Groundwater Model for Dryland Salinity (460 KB)
The rising groundwater model has been presented as the general and official model for dryland salinity and is the basis for modeling salinity hazard by reference to groundwater flow systems. However, the model has numerous variants and has evolved over time to adjust for observed discrepancies. The note examines one representation of the rising groundwater model to illustrate obvious deficiencies that apply to most representations. Salinity hazard maps produced by reference to groundwater flow systems are used to illustrate how the deficient and illogical understanding in manifest in spurious predictions.
Dryland Salinity as seen on TV (320 KB)
A short note that examines the reality with the most publicised example of dryland salinity in NSW. Severe salinity has been officially identified as being associated with a rising groundwater system when the salinity is low and is not associated with a groundwater system.
A soil degradation model for Dryland Salinity (540 KB)
The applicability of rising groundwater model for dryland salinity is examined by way of applications where it can't apply, observed salinity outcomes discordant with the model and the physical invalidity of usual representations of the model. A hypothesis involving dryland salinity being caused by soil structural degradation is discussed by way of the impacts of land use on soils, observed salinity outcomes, and the ability to reverse the adverse salinity. The implications are discussed by way of the general degradation of the system that leads to the localised salinity impacts and the appropriate remedial actions.
Dryland Salinity Implications of Interactions between Clay, Organic Matter, Salt and Water in Soils (184 KB)
This paper addresses the mechanisms for the effect of organic matter on soil salinity. It details the interactions between clay, organic matter, salt and water in soils relating to the role of soil organic matter in dryland salinity.
Comments of the 2005 Version of: Technical Report on Salinity Mapping Methods in the Australian Context by Brian Spies and Peter Woodgate (680 KB)
This 14 page paper is an evaluation by ERIC of the 2005 Spies and Woodgate Report on Salinity Mapping Methods. This Report claimed that salinity mapping using radiometric data could not be achieved based on theoretically modelling. This Report did not assess the evidence presented by ERIC as Woodgate claimed that such commercial vendors had not had their results independently assessed or published under peer review. ERIC sets out in this paper the errors of scientific fact in this 2005 Report, including misrepresentations of vendor methods and the lack of duty of care by the reviewing authorities to properly assess the evidence produced by ERIC. Other papers and documents in Latest News provide evidence of the results of ERIC's salinity mapping capability, and a review of a DIPNR Report that is not available to the public but is referenced in the Spies and Woodgate Reports.
Comparison of EM and Radiometrics for salinity mapping (1.3 MB)
This paper compares the use of ground based electromagnetics with the use of airborne radiometrics for dryland salinity mapping.
General & Technical Comments of the Initial Release: Technical Report on Salinity Mapping Methods in the Australian Context by Brian Spies and Peter Woodgate (280 KB)
This 12 page paper is an evaluation by ERIC of the 2004 Spies and Woodgate Report on Salinity Mapping Methods. This Report claimed that salinity mapping using radiometric data could not be achieved based on their theoretically modelling. This Report did not assess the evidence presented by ERIC as they claimed that such commercial vendors had not had their results independently assessed or published under peer review. ERIC sets out in this paper the errors of scientific fact in this 2004 Report, including misrepresentations of vendor methods and the lack of duty of care by the reviewing authorities to properly assess the evidence produced by ERIC.
Mapping to Address Dryland Salinity (288 KB)
This 2 page paper sets out the historical context and achievements (awards and recognition) in the development of ERIC's soil property and salinity mapping technologies using radiometric data. ERIC firstly developed SoilMap in 1992 to map soil properties including pH, Eh, texture, EC (saline pathways), etc. This approach was then further developed and renamed as SoilSelect in 2004. ERIC also developed SalinityMap in 2001 and this technology is now patented, but requires further development before full commercialisation.
What Model for Dryland Salinity? (132 KB)
This paper discusses a new general model for dryland salinity.
Dryland Salinity: Providing Solutions (112 KB)
This paper discusses the solutions for dryland salinity.
Salt of the Earth (1.2 MB)
This 3 page paper was published in the June-July issue of GIS USER Magazine in 2002. The paper outlines results of ERIC's salinity mapping in the Cootamundra Shire, NSW; using SoilMap. The results in this project are significant as it resolved key salinity issues for the Shire staff and was the first demonstration of mapping salt pathways that impacted on infrastructure, eg. roads.
Salinity is natural (116 KB)
This paper discusses the natural process of dryland salinity.
Scenario for dryland salinity (156 KB)
This paper discusses common perceptions as to the cause of dryland salinity that have constrained the direction of research, and the development of solutions.